• In this work we present evidence that 1,2 PD metabolism by L. reuteri 20016 resulted in production of commercially important chemicals including propionaldehyde, 1-propanol and propionic acid. The results presented in Fig. 1 shows the time dependent growth of L. reuteri 20016 metabolizing 1,2 PD as a sole carbon and energy source. The pathway of…[Read more]

  • It has been documented that the occurrence of ashworthiosis infection has gradually increased over recent years, especially in the European bison population (Demiaszkiewicz et al., 2013). Moreover, Osińska et al. (2010) conclude that the intensity of histopathological changes identified in the walls of the abomasa and duodena of infected animals…[Read more]

  • The C1 pattern is well-conserved in areas with a high incidence of bovine paratuberculosis in Europe (Fritsch et al., 2012; Möbius et al., 2008; Pavlik et al., 1999; Stevenson et al., 2009), in the United States (Whipple et al., 1990), in New Zealand (Collins et al., 1990), and Australia (Cousins et al., 2000; Whittington et al., 2000). It was…[Read more]

  • Materials and methodsAcknowledgementThis work was supported by funding from UTMB’s Institute for Human Infections and Immunity to DWCB. JAP was supported by pre-doctoral fellowships from the Biodefense Training Program (NIH grant T32-AI060549) and the Sealy Center for Vaccine Development.IntroductionThe self-assembly of highly symmetric virus…[Read more]

  • As summarized in Fig. 2, ITS genotyping has identified over 200 E. bieneusi genotypes with intraspecific variability. A neighbor-joining analysis based on genetic distances calculated using the Kimura two-parameter model facilitated classification of them into zoonotic Group 1 (subgroups 1a–1h) and host-adapted groups 2 to 7. Some of the Group 1…[Read more]

  • Apo-H (beta-2-glycoprotein 1) is a single chain multifunctional apolipoprotein also expressed in kidney tubular epithelium and involved in clotting mechanisms and lipid metabolism (Klaerke et al., 1997). The increase in urinary Apo-H in diabetic patients has been proposed as a marker of tubular dysfunction (Lapsley et al., 1993), and recent stu…[Read more]

  • AcknowledgementsIntroductionMetal formate frameworks of general formula [A][MII(HCOO)3], where A denotes ammonium cations such as NH4+, (CH3)2NH2+ (DMA+), NH2NH3+ etc. and MII=Cd, Mg, Zn, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu, received enormous interest in recent years due to plenty of phenomena exhibited by these compounds such as multiferroism [1–9], negative t…[Read more]

  • AcknowledgmentsIntroductionCoordination polymers (PCs) have been the subject of intense studies in the last decades [1–3]. A specific class of these materials are the metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) [4] that have as a main characteristic a high surface area and are modulated and tunable porous materials in which interesting structures can be f…[Read more]

  • Enrique Crane posted an update 1 month ago

    Endocytosis describes the de novo production of internal membranes from the plasma membrane lipid bilayer (Doherty and McMahon, 2009). Endocytosis is involved extensively in many different biological processes, including synapse storage of neurotransmitters and virus entry pathway. Apart from direct penetration, old town represents the most…[Read more]

  • Enrique Crane posted an update 1 month ago

    The prevalence of C. vulpis infection in foxes varied between 2% and 58% in Europe (Rajković-Janje et al., 2002; Sréter et al., 2003; Mañas et al., 2005; Davidson et al., 2006; Saeed et al., 2006; Morgan et al. 2008; Franssen et al., 2014; Magi et al., 2015). In the present study, statistical analysis showed that younger animals (<2years) were mo…[Read more]

  • Enrique Crane posted an update 1 month ago

    In CHMp-13a, change in phosphorylation of Rb induced by metformin was not consistent with fgfr inhibitor distribution of the cells. The phosphorylation of Rb at serine 807/811, which we evaluated in this study, is known to facilitate phosphorylation of Rb at other phosphorylation sites and is a general indicator of Rb activation. However, it does…[Read more]

  • Enrique Crane posted an update 1 month ago

    ConclusionsConflict of interest statementAcknowledgmentsIntroductionLivestock diseases have a significant impact on human health and economic activity. Many diseases are existing or emerging zoonoses (Jones et al., 2013), and still more can infect wildlife species, creating reservoirs of disease that androgen receptor make eradication difficult…[Read more]

  • Enrique Crane posted an update 1 month ago

    IntroductionAlthough RSV is rather antigenically stable, RSV infection fails to induce a protective memory immune response and thus leaves individuals susceptible to re-infection. It is possible that RSV down-regulates or inhibits some aspect of the immune response, which precludes long-lasting immune memory development. Previously it was shown…[Read more]

  • Enrique Crane posted an update 1 month ago

    Several studies were demonstrated that neutralizing hydroxycarboxylic acid receptors were more important for FMDV protective immunity, cellular mediated immune responses were important to clear the FMD (Collen et al., 1989; Sanz-Parra et al., 1998). DNA vaccines induce CMI response as the antigen expressed and processed within the cell in the…[Read more]

  • ResultsIn the 5 buffalo farms the average oocyst sirtuins decreased significantly (p<0.05) in both the treated groups (TOL and DIC groups) compared to the CONT group, however the TOL groups showed significantly (p<0.05) lower counts (OPG) than the DIC groups (Fig. 1). The species of Eimeria found in the animals were E. ellipsoidalis, E. bovis, E.…[Read more]

  • DisclaimerAcknowledgmentsThis work builds upon the doctoral thesis of Matthew Kappes, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 2014, entitled “Identification and characterization of a novel structural protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, the replicase nonstructural p…[Read more]

  • People working with farm animals generally have a high seroprevalence of TAPI-1 against C. burnetii, even in countries where acute Q fever notifications are rare, e.g., USA (Whitney et al., 2009), or where outbreaks of the disease have never been described, e.g., Denmark (Nielsen et al., 2013b). Outbreaks of acute Q fever mostly occur among…[Read more]

  • Sunshine virus has been detected by PCR from oral and cloacal swabs, so it is assumed that horizontal transmission can occur from oral and cloacal secretions (Hyndman et al., 2012b). Prior to this report, there has been no evidence that Sunshine virus can transmit itself vertically.Vertical transmission has been defined by many sources. In…[Read more]

  • In these context such problems are debated as approach to European law and, particularly, to judgments of European Court on human rights concerning Russian internal politics (Edinoe pravovoe prostranstvo Evropy, 2007). Three main positions are represented – the priority of international law over national; the priority of the national law over i…[Read more]

  • DiscussionSimilar to previous reports of SSI occurrence following both equine exploratory laparotomies (Ingle-Fehr et?al., 1997; Mair and Smith, 2005a; Coomer et?al., 2007; Torfs et?al., 2010; Anderson et?al., 2014; Colbath et?al., 2014; Isgren et?al., 2015) and elective colorectal surgery in humans (26%, Smith et?al., 2004), SSI occurrence in…[Read more]

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